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Habituation of the cold shock response: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Barwood, M. J., Eglin, C., Hills, S. P., Johnston, N., Massey, H., McMorris, T., Tipton, M. J., Wakabayashi, H. and Webster, L., 2024. Habituation of the cold shock response: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Thermal Biology, 119, 103775.

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DOI: 10.1016/j.jtherbio.2023.103775


Cold water immersion (CWI) evokes the life-threatening reflex cold shock response (CSR), inducing hyperventilation, increasing cardiac arrhythmias, and increasing drowning risk by impairing safety behaviour. Repeated CWI induces CSR habituation (i.e., diminishing response with same stimulus magnitude) after ~4 immersions, with variation between studies. We quantified the magnitude and coefficient of variation (CoV) in the CSR in a systematic review and meta-analysis with search terms entered to Medline, SportDiscus, PsychINFO, Pubmed, and Cochrane Central Register. Random effects meta-analyses, including effect sizes (Cohen’s d) from 17 eligible groups (k), were conducted for heart rate (HR, n=145, k=17), respiratory frequency (fR, n=73, k=12,), minute ventilation (Ve, n=106, k=10) and tidal volume (Vt, n=46, k=6). All CSR variables habituated (p<.001) with large or moderate pooled effect sizes: ∆HR -14(10) bt.min-1(d: -1.19); ∆fR -8(7) br.min-1 (d: -0.78,); ∆Ve, -21.3(9.8) L.min-1 (d: -1.64); ∆Vt -0.4(0.3) L -1. Variation was greatest in Ve (control vs comparator immersion: 32.5&24.7%) compared to Vt (11.8&12.1%). Repeated CWI induces CSR habituation potentially reducing drowning risk. We consider the neurophysiological and behavioural consequences.

Item Type:Article
Uncontrolled Keywords:Drowning risk; Cold shock response; Non-fatal drowning; Immersion; Safety behaviour; Sensitisation; Psychophysiology
Group:Faculty of Health & Social Sciences
ID Code:39259
Deposited By: Symplectic RT2
Deposited On:13 Dec 2023 09:54
Last Modified:30 May 2024 09:18


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