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BSM-6G: Blockchain-based Dynamic Spectrum Management for 6G Networks: Addressing Interoperability and Scalability.

Cuellar, D., Sallal, M. and Williams, C., 2024. BSM-6G: Blockchain-based Dynamic Spectrum Management for 6G Networks: Addressing Interoperability and Scalability. IEEE Access, 12, 59643-59664.

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BSM-6G_Blockchain-Based_Dynamic_Spectrum_Management_for_6G_Networks_Addressing_Interoperability_and_Scalability.pdf - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial No Derivatives.


DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2024.3393288


The radio frequency spectrum serves as a fundamental resource for wireless communication, encompassing various frequency bands allocated for diverse services and applications. Dynamic spectrum management (DSM) is essential to optimise the utilisation of this limited and valuable natural resource, with the aim of improving performance and adapting to changing wireless communication demands. Traditional static spectrum allocation methods have shown inefficiencies, leading to spectrum scarcity and under-utilisation. To address these challenges, the integration of blockchain and Cognitive Radio (CR) technologies has emerged as a promising approach. Blockchain, with its decentralised and secure attributes, can improve transparency and trust in spectrum allocation processes, while CR enables intelligent spectrum sensing and allocation to maximise utilisation. However, this promising approach comes with its own critical challenges, especially when dealing with the 6th Generation (6G) mobile communication. These challenges are related to the fact that the blockchain ecosystem needs to be interoperable and scalable enough to be compatible with the 6G high-demand and substantial resources. Specifically, integrating blockchain with CR requires efficient interoperability techniques where blockchain can easily and effectively interact with the CR platforms as well as radio spectrum environments. Furthermore, the spectrum management system over 6G networks needs to be designed in a way where massive 6G resources can be accommodated and managed without having any service performance degradation. This paper introduces a novel radio spectrum management model in 6G networks, named as BSM-6G, which integrates blockchain technology with CR where interoperability is preserved and scalability is maximised. Specifically, the proposed BSM-6G model merges blockchain’s transparent record keeping with CR’s intelligent spectrum management capabilities. To overcome the interoperability issue, BSM-6G provides an interoperable blockchain Oracle approach which facilitates the real-time interaction among the blockchain platform, the CR, and any data sources off-chain. This paper details all the technical and procedural challenges when implementing the proposed interoperability Oracle approach. To address the scalability challenge, BSM-6G utilizes the Proof-of-History (PoH) consensus protocol to align with the requirements of DSM in advanced networks like Beyond 5th Generation (B5G) and 6G. Evaluation results indicate that BSM-6G offers viable and less complex blockchain Oracle integration architecture measured by the technical implementation of BSM-6G, as well as low interoperability cost measured by transaction response time and transaction fee cost. Compared to state-of-the-art spectrum-based blockchain systems, BSM-6G shows a high scalable DSM-based blockchain in 6G networks measured by transactions per second (TPS).

Item Type:Article
Uncontrolled Keywords:6G mobile communication; blockchains; cognitive radio; interoperability; radio spectrum management; scalability
Group:Faculty of Science & Technology
ID Code:39788
Deposited By: Symplectic RT2
Deposited On:07 May 2024 09:08
Last Modified:07 May 2024 09:08


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