Energy compensation in the real world. Good compensation for small portions of chocolate and biscuits over short time periods in complicit consumers using commercially available foods.

Appleton, K., McKeown, P.P. and Woodside, J.V., 2014. Energy compensation in the real world. Good compensation for small portions of chocolate and biscuits over short time periods in complicit consumers using commercially available foods. Appetite, 85C, 104 - 110 .

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DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2014.11.016

Abstract

While investigations using covert food manipulations tend to suggest that individuals are poor at adjusting for previous energy intake, in the real world adults rarely consume foods with which they are ill-informed. This study investigated the impact in fully complicit consumers of consuming commercially available dark chocolate, milk chocolate, sweet biscuits and fruit bars on subsequent appetite. Using a repeated measures design, participants received four small portions (4 × 10-11 g) of either dark chocolate, milk chocolate, sweet biscuits, fruit bars or no food throughout five separate study days (counterbalanced in order), and test meal intake, hunger, liking and acceptability were measured. Participants consumed significantly less at lunch following dark chocolate, milk chocolate and sweet biscuits compared to no food (smallest t(19) = 2.47, p = 0.02), demonstrating very good energy compensation (269-334%). No effects were found for fruit bars (t(19) = 1.76, p = 0.09), in evening meal intakes (F(4,72) = 0.62, p = 0.65) or in total intake (lunch + evening meal + food portions) (F(4,72) = 0.40, p = 0.69). No differences between conditions were found in measures of hunger (largest F(4,76) = 1.26, p = 0.29), but fruit bars were significantly less familiar than all other foods (smallest t(19) = 3.14, p = 0.01). These findings demonstrate good compensation over the short term for small portions of familiar foods in complicit consumers. Findings are most plausibly explained as a result of participant awareness and cognitions, although the nature of these cognitions cannot be discerned from this study. These findings however, also suggest that covert manipulations may have limited transfer to real world scenarios.

Item Type:Article
ISSN:0195-6663
Uncontrolled Keywords:Appetite ; Cognitions ; Dark chocolate ; Energy compensation ; Energy intake ; Hunger
Subjects:UNSPECIFIED
Group:Faculty of Science and Technology
ID Code:21614
Deposited By: Unnamed user with email symplectic@symplectic
Deposited On:17 Dec 2014 09:53
Last Modified:17 Dec 2014 09:53

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