# Mathematical modelling and simulation of multiphase flow in a flat plate solar energy collector.

Helvaci, H. and Khan, Z. A., 2015. Mathematical modelling and simulation of multiphase flow in a flat plate solar energy collector. Energy Conversion and Management, 106, 139 - 150.

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## Abstract

Non-conventional collectors where organic fluid or refrigerant experience a phase change have many advantages over conventional collectors which have either air or relatively high temperature boiling liquid. Increase in heat transfer coefficient and system efficiency, corrosion prevention and freeze protection are the main benefits of the first type. In this study, a detailed numerical model of a flat plate collector is developed to investigate the fluid mean temperature, useful heat gain and heat transfer coefficient along the collector tube. The refrigerant HFC-134a was used in the simulation as the working fluid of the collector. The model can both predict the location where the fluid undergoes a phase change in the tube and the state at the exit under given inlet conditions. The effect of boiling on the heat transfer coefficient of the fluid is also investigated. Simulations were performed at three different mass flow rates (0.001, 0.005 and 0.01 kg/s) and three different operating pressures (4, 6 and 8 bar) to be able to see the effect of mass flow rate and pressure on plate temperature, heat loss coefficient, efficiency of the collector and the heat transfer coefficient of the fluid. The simulation results indicate that the heat transfer coefficient of the fluid increases from 153.54 W/m2K to 610.27 W/m2K in multiphase flow region. In the liquid single phase region, the collector efficiency rises from 60.2% to 68.8% and the heat transfer coefficient of the fluid increases from 39.24 W/m2K to 392.31 W/m2K with an increased flow rate whereas the collector efficiency decreases from 72.5% to 62.3% as the operating pressure increases from 4 bar to 8 bar. In order to validate the simulation model an experimental test rig was built and the experiments were performed with HFE 7000 as working thermo-fluid. A new simulation model utilizing HFE 7000 has been developed and the outlet temperature of the fluid was compared with the measured outlet temperature. Both measured and simulated results have shown close conformity.

Item Type: Article Accepted 10th September 2015 Faculty of Science & Technology 23041 Unnamed user with email symplectic@symplectic 05 Jan 2016 12:09 05 Jan 2016 12:09