Random mutagenesis and precise gene editing technologies: applications in algal crop improvement and functional genomics.

Gan, S.Y. and Maggs, C., 2017. Random mutagenesis and precise gene editing technologies: applications in algal crop improvement and functional genomics. European Journal of Phycology, 52 (4), 466 - 481.

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DOI: 10.1080/09670262.2017.1358827

Abstract

© 2017 British Phycological Society. The establishment of a system for gene modification is crucial for the generation of new improved algal strains and elucidation of functional genome organization to enhance our understanding of algal biology. Several gene transfer methods have been developed for stable introduction of transgenes into algae allowing expression of desired foreign proteins. Site-specific gene integration and gene knockdown were achieved through homologous recombination and RNA interference approaches. The nuclease-associated gene editing technologies such as CRISPR-associated RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9 (CRISPR-Cas9) could efficiently generate stable targeted gene editing in algae. Although gene modification technologies have been established for algae, there are still practical difficulties that need to be addressed prior to commercialization such as transgene stability, potential risks and public acceptance. Genetic mitigation and containment strategies should be considered for commercial-scale production of transgenic algae. Abbreviations: ALE, adaptive laboratory evolution; AmiRNA, artificial microRNA; BER, base excision repair; CaMV35S, Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S; Cas9, CRISPR-associated protein 9; Cas9n, Cas9 mutant nickase; CRISPR, clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats; crRNA, CRISPR RNA; dCAS9, nuclease-deficient Cas9, dead Cas9 or inactive Cas9; DSB, double-stranded break; GM, genetically modified; HDR, homology-directed repair; HR, homologous recombination; miRNA, microRNA; mRNA, messenger RNA; NHEJ, non-homologous end joining; NiR, nitrite reductase; NR, nitrate reductase; PAM, Protospacer-Adjacent Motif; RNAi, RNA interference; sgRNA, single guide RNA; siRNA, small interfering RNA; sRNA, small RNA; SV40, Simian vacuolating virus 40 or Simian virus 40; TALEN, transcription-activator like effector nuclease; tracrRNA, transactivating CRISPR RNA; UTR, Untranslated region; ZFN, zinc-finger nuclease.

Item Type:Article
ISSN:0967-0262
Uncontrolled Keywords:CRISPR-Cas9; gene knockdown; genetic transformation; insertional mutagenesis; reverse genetics; transgenic algae
Group:Faculty of Science & Technology
ID Code:30039
Deposited By: Unnamed user with email symplectic@symplectic
Deposited On:27 Nov 2017 15:39
Last Modified:27 Nov 2017 15:39

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