Repeated exposure and conditioning strategies for increasing vegetable liking and intake: Systematic review and meta-analyses of the published literature.

Appleton, K., Hemingway, A., Rajska, J. and Hartwell, H., 2018. Repeated exposure and conditioning strategies for increasing vegetable liking and intake: Systematic review and meta-analyses of the published literature. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 108 (4), pp. 842-856.

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DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy143

Abstract

Background Vegetable intakes are typically lower than recommended for health. Although repeated exposure has been advocated to increase vegetable liking and consumption, no combination of the evidence yet provides a measure of benefit from repeated exposure or alternative conditioning strategies. Objective This work aimed to identify and synthesize the current evidence for the use of repeated exposure and conditioning strategies for increasing vegetable liking and consumption. Design Three academic databases were searched over all years of records using prespecified search terms. Published data from all suitable articles were tabulated in relation to 3 research questions and combined via meta-analyses. Results Forty-three articles detailing 117 comparisons investigating the use of repeated exposure and conditioning strategies for increasing liking and intakes of vegetables were found. Our analyses demonstrate: 1) increased liking and intakes of the exposed vegetable after repeated exposure compared with no exposure; 2) increased liking for the exposed vegetable after conditioning compared with repeated exposure, increased intakes after the use of rewards, and some suggestion of decreased intakes after flavor-nutrient conditioning; and 3) increased liking and intakes of a novel vegetable after repeated exposure to a variety of other vegetables compared with no exposure or repeated exposure to one other vegetable. Effect sizes, however, are small, and limited evidence suggests long-term benefits. Our analyses, furthermore, are limited by limitations in study design, compliance, and/or reporting. Conclusions Based on our findings, we recommend the use of repeated exposure to one and a variety of vegetables, and the use of rewards, for increasing vegetable liking and consumption. Confirmation from further large, well-conducted studies that use realistic scenarios, however, is also required.

Item Type:Article
ISSN:0002-9165
Additional Information:This study was registered at PROSPERO as CRD42017056919. Supported as part of the EU FP7-funded project: VeggiEAT (grant PIAPGA-2013-612326).
Uncontrolled Keywords:vegetable liking; vegetable intakes; repeated exposure; conditioning; systematic review; meta-analyses
Group:Faculty of Health & Social Sciences
ID Code:31097
Deposited By: Unnamed user with email symplectic@symplectic
Deposited On:06 Aug 2018 08:57
Last Modified:05 Nov 2018 16:45

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