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The loci of Stroop effects: a critical review of methods and evidence for levels of processing contributing to color-word Stroop effects and the implications for the loci of attentional selection.

Parris, B. A., Hasshim, N., Wadsley, M., Augustinova, M. and Ferrand, L., 2021. The loci of Stroop effects: a critical review of methods and evidence for levels of processing contributing to color-word Stroop effects and the implications for the loci of attentional selection. Psychological Research. (In Press)

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DOI: 10.1007/s00426-021-01554-x

Abstract

Despite instructions to ignore the irrelevant word in the Stroop task, it robustly influences the time it takes to identify the color, leading to performance decrements (interference) or enhancements (facilitation). The present review addresses two questions: (1) What levels of processing contribute to Stroop effects; and (2) Where does attentional selection occur? The methods that are used in the Stroop literature to measure the candidate varieties of interference and facilitation are critically evaluated and the processing levels that contribute to Stroop effects are discussed. It is concluded that the literature does not provide clear evidence for a distinction between conflicting and facilitating representations at phonological, semantic and response levels (together referred to as informational conflict), because the methods do not currently permit their isolated measurement. In contrast, it is argued that the evidence for task conflict as being distinct from informational conflict is strong and, thus, that there are at least two loci of attentional selection in the Stroop task. Evidence suggests that task conflict occurs earlier, has a different developmental trajectory and is independently controlled which supports the notion of a separate mechanism of attentional selection. The modifying effects of response modes and evidence for Stroop effects at the level of response execution are also discussed. It is argued that multiple studies claiming to have distinguished response and semantic conflict have not done so unambiguously and that models of Stroop task performance need to be modified to more effectively account for the loci of Stroop effects.

Item Type:Article
ISSN:0340-0727
Additional Information:Funding The work reported was supported in part by ANR Grant ANR-19-CE28-0013 and RIN Tremplin Grant 19E00851 of Normandie Région, France.
Group:Faculty of Science & Technology
ID Code:35953
Deposited By: Unnamed user with email symplectic@symplectic
Deposited On:01 Sep 2021 15:08
Last Modified:01 Sep 2021 15:08

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