Skip to main content

In vivo through range passive stiffness of the lumbar spine: a meta-analysis of measurements and methods.

Watt, A., Callaway, A. and Williams, J., 2022. In vivo through range passive stiffness of the lumbar spine: a meta-analysis of measurements and methods. Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing, 60, 2133-2157.

Full text available as:

Watt2022_Article_InVivoThrough-rangePassiveStif.pdf - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.


DOI: 10.1007/s11517-022-02609-w


Passive spinal stiffness is an important property thought to play a significant role in controlling spinal position and movement. Measuring through-range passive stiffness in vivo is challenging with several methods offered in the literature. Currently, no synthesis of values or methods exists to which to compare literature to. This study aims to provide a contemporary review and quantitative synthesis of the through-range in vivo passive lumbar spinal stiffness values for each of the cardinal planes of movement. A structured systematic search, following PRISMA guidelines, of 28 electronic databases was conducted in 2022. Articles were restricted to peer-reviewed English language studies investigating in vivo through-range passive stiffness of the lumbar spine. Thirteen studies were included, ten relating to flexion/extension, four to lateral bending and five to axial rotation. Average stiffness values, as weighted means and confidence intervals, for each of the four sections of the moment-movement curves were synthesised for all planes of movement. Lateral bending was found to be the comparatively stiffest movement followed by flexion and then axial rotation. Future research should focus on the validity and reliability of measurement techniques. Axial rotation would also benefit from further study of its latter stages of range.

Item Type:Article
Uncontrolled Keywords:Biomechanics; Low back; Moment; Review; Trunk.
Group:Faculty of Health & Social Sciences
ID Code:37146
Deposited By: Symplectic RT2
Deposited On:05 Jul 2022 09:03
Last Modified:19 Jul 2022 10:51


Downloads per month over past year

More statistics for this item...
Repository Staff Only -